Studies

Consumer protection in EU online gambling regulation: Review of the implementation of selected provisions of European Union Commission Recommendation 2014/478/EU across EU States.
Consumer protection in EU online gambling regulation: Review of the implementation of selected provisions of European Union Commission Recommendation 2014/478/EU across EU States.

Gambling in the Single Market

A study by the City University London to review the implementation of selected provisions of the principles of the European Commission's Recommendation 2014/478/EU across EU Member States. The study reviewed specifically Member States rules addressing players’ identification, minors’ protection & social responsibilities measures. The study evaluates if the Recommendation sufficed to voluntarily nudge Member States to converge online gambling regulations and to achieve consistently high level of protection across the whole of the European Union.

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Study on the sharing of information and reporting of suspicious sports betting activity in the EU 28, Oxford Institute, 2014
Study on the sharing of information and reporting of suspicious sports betting activity in the EU 28, Oxford Institute, 2014

Match Fixing

The study focuses on the regulation of information collection, storage, and sharing of information on suspicious sports betting activity, examining both formal regulations imposed through the legal and official regulatory system in each of the EU 28 Member States, along with industry-led self-regulatory approaches. While it is less common for Gambling Authorities to have a direct obligation to collect and process information on suspicious sports betting activity, gambling operators do frequently have an obligation to report to the gambling regulator.

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Study on risk assessment and management and prevention of conflicts of interest in the prevention and fight against betting-related match fixing in the EU 28 , by Asser Institute, 2014
Study on risk assessment and management and prevention of conflicts of interest in the prevention and fight against betting-related match fixing in the EU 28 , by Asser Institute, 2014

Match Fixing

This report concerns the provisions and practices on betting-related match fixing in sports within the 28 Member States. Carried out in late 2013/early 2014, respondents in each Member State reported on that state’s gambling related provisions in respect of football and tennis and (in each country) a third sport determined on the basis of either its popularity (in terms of participation or television viewing) or the existence of betting-related “scandals” in that sport within that particular jurisdiction. Those reports helped the authors to compare the Member States’ regulatory and self-regulatory frameworks relating to risk assessment and conflict of interest management, with a view to indicating areas of best practice, identifying particularly good legislative frameworks and highlighting areas where change was either desirable or necessary. While some individual Member States have legislation which might provide templates that others could adapt for their own use, the authors were not convinced that “more law”, whether at the national or European level, was desirable. Rather, more effective cooperation among the stakeholders was identified as being more likely to provide tangible benefits than would new legal frameworks.

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The odds of match- fixing: facts and figures on the integrity risk of certain sports bets, by Asser Institute, 2014
The odds of match- fixing: facts and figures on the integrity risk of certain sports bets, by Asser Institute, 2014

Match Fixing

As a result of technological advances and particularly the emergence and growth of the online gambling market, sports betting opportunities have increased dramatically, both in terms of the number of sport events and the number of betting markets available. This diversification of the sports betting offer has caused considerable concern among various stakeholders. It is often argued that some of these new betting options pose inherent threats to the integrity of sports events.

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The cost of Non Europe in the Single Market, by GHK for the European Parliament, 2014
The cost of Non Europe in the Single Market, by GHK for the European Parliament, 2014

Gambling in the Single Market

In May 2013 the European Parliament's Committee on Internal Market and Consumer Policy (IMCO) requested a Cost of Non-Europe Report in the field of the European Single Market. Cost of Non-Europe Reports are intended to evaluate the possibilities for economic or other gains and/or the realisation of a ‘public good’ through common action at EU level in specific policy areas and sectors.

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UK: An economic and social review of gambling, 2013
UK: An economic and social review of gambling, 2013

Responsible Gambling

The paper considers the nature and scale of the benefits and costs of gambling, with special reference to machine gaming. Although the industry is argued to be unlikely to have a significant macroeconomic impact, evidence is consistent with it generating considerable benefits to individual (responsible) consumers, whether measured by consumer surplus or through the pattern of responses to a wellbeing question. At the same time, a minority of users of gaming facilities, problem gamblers, appear to make consistently flawed decisions such that those with gambling disorder experience exceptionally low wellbeing. Public policy and regulatory decisions should consider the effects, on the margin, on both the net benefits to recreational gamblers and the net costs to problem gamblers. Many policy decisions may involve a trade-off between the welfare of recreational gamblers and the welfare of problem gamblers. Contemporary interest in targeted policies appears to represent an attempt to avoid the need to confront such a trade-off by searching for policies which are aimed very explicitly at problem gamblers alone.

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