Studies

The threat of money laundering and terrorist financing through the online gambling industry, By MHA on behalf of the RGA, 2009
The threat of money laundering and terrorist financing through the online gambling industry, By MHA on behalf of the RGA, 2009

Money Laundering

Whilst, historically, the measures to guard against money laundering and terrorist financing had been directed towards the financial sector, in December 2001 the Second European Money Laundering Directive extended the provisions to a range of non-financial sector businesses, including casinos, and set an implementation deadline of June 2003. Whilst the scope of the Directive was extended to the gaming sector because of the perceived vulnerabilities of land-based casinos, there continues to be a perception that remote casinos are also similarly vulnerable. Consequently, both the perception and the money laundering risks have needed to be managed by the remote gambling industry.

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Global Money Laundering & Terrorist Financing Threat Assessment, FATF, 2009
Global Money Laundering & Terrorist Financing Threat Assessment, FATF, 2009

Money Laundering

The Financial Action Task Force (FATF) is an independent inter-governmental body that develops and promotes policies to protect the global financial system against money laundering and terrorist financing. Recommendations issued by the FATF define criminal justice and regulatory measures that should be implemented to counter this problem. These Recommendations also include international co-operation and preventive measures to be taken by financial institutions and others such as casinos, real estate dealers, lawyers and accountants. The FATF Recommendations are recognised as the global anti-money laundering (AML) and counter-terrorist financing (CFT) standard.

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Online gambling: Focusing on integrity and a code of conduct for gambling, Europe Economics (for the European Parliament), 2008
Online gambling: Focusing on integrity and a code of conduct for gambling, Europe Economics (for the European Parliament), 2008

Money Laundering

Our brief was to research what policy options are available to ensure a reliable and transparent online gambling market, and to establish whether a Code of Conduct for licensed gambling operators is an adequate measure to ensure the integrity of operators. Integrity is defined as relating mainly to fraud but also embraces money-laundering, problem (addictive) gambling, and under-age gambling.

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Scandinavia : The prevalence of problematic gambling behaviour – A scandinavian comparison, 2006
Scandinavia : The prevalence of problematic gambling behaviour – A scandinavian comparison, 2006

Responsible Gambling

On the basis of a new large-scale screening for the prevalence of problematic gambling behaviour in Denmark, the aim of the study was: (a) to evaluate the effect of applying different screening tools; and (b) to compare gambling behaviour in Denmark with the prevalence of problematic gambling behaviour in other Scandinavian countries. The screening tools applied were the internationally validated SOGS-R and NODS. These were used within the same survey, thus allowing for comparison with surveys conducted in other Scandinavian countries where either the one or the other tool has been utilized. The prevalence of at-risk gamblers, problematic gamblers and pathological gamblers was significantly lower in Denmark than in the other Scandinavian countries. This held true for both genders as well as for different age groups in comparisons of Denmark and Norway. There is a considerable variation in the prevalence of problematic gambling between the Scandinavian countries, with Denmark having the smallest number of gamblers with problematic behaviour. The variation might be due to national differences in gambling preferences, access to games, public policies concerning gambling, etc., but investigation of this would require further comparative research.

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