Studies

UK: An economic and social review of gambling, 2013
UK: An economic and social review of gambling, 2013

Responsible Gambling

The paper considers the nature and scale of the benefits and costs of gambling, with special reference to machine gaming. Although the industry is argued to be unlikely to have a significant macroeconomic impact, evidence is consistent with it generating considerable benefits to individual (responsible) consumers, whether measured by consumer surplus or through the pattern of responses to a wellbeing question. At the same time, a minority of users of gaming facilities, problem gamblers, appear to make consistently flawed decisions such that those with gambling disorder experience exceptionally low wellbeing. Public policy and regulatory decisions should consider the effects, on the margin, on both the net benefits to recreational gamblers and the net costs to problem gamblers. Many policy decisions may involve a trade-off between the welfare of recreational gamblers and the welfare of problem gamblers. Contemporary interest in targeted policies appears to represent an attempt to avoid the need to confront such a trade-off by searching for policies which are aimed very explicitly at problem gamblers alone.

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European Commission: Gambling related harms in ALICE RAP (7th Research Framework Program), July 2013
European Commission: Gambling related harms in ALICE RAP (7th Research Framework Program), July 2013

Responsible Gambling

ALICE RAP (Addiction and Lifestyles in Contemporary Europe - Reframing Addictions Project) is a five year European research project: co-financed by the European Commission, Bringing together around 200 scientists from more than 25 countries and 29 different disciplines. It aims to strengthen scientific evidence to inform the public and political dialogue and to stimulate a broad and productive debate on current and alternative approaches to addictions.

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The use of online gambling for money laundering and the financing of terrorism purposes, Moneyval, April 2013
The use of online gambling for money laundering and the financing of terrorism purposes, Moneyval, April 2013

Money Laundering

The Committee of Experts on the Evaluation of Anti-Money Laundering Measures and the Financing of Terrorism - MONEYVAL is a permanent monitoring body of the Council of Europe entrusted with the task of assessing compliance with the principal international standards to counter money laundering and the financing of terrorism and the effectiveness of their implementation, as well as with the task of making recommendations to national authorities in respect of necessary improvements to their systems. Through a dynamic process of mutual evaluations, peer review and regular follow-up of its reports, MONEYVAL aims to improve the capacities of national authorities to fight money laundering and the financing of terrorism more effectively.

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France: Les jeux d’argent et de hasard sur Internet en France, Observatoire francais des drogues et des toxicomanies, 2012
France: Les jeux d’argent et de hasard sur Internet en France, Observatoire francais des drogues et des toxicomanies, 2012

Responsible Gambling

Face à l’offre illégale grandissante sur Internet et en réponse à une forte demande européenne d’une ouverture de l’offre de jeux à la concurrence, la France a, par la loi du 12 mai 2010, organisé une « ouverture maîtrisée à la concurrence » du marché des jeux d’argent et de hasard (JAH) en ligne dans trois domaines : les paris sportifs, les paris hippiques et le poker. La loi de 2010 oblige tous les opérateurs à prendre différentes mesures pour lutter contre le jeu excessif et promouvoir le « jeu responsable ». Deux ans après la promulgation de la loi, au cours du 4e trimestre 2012, l’Observatoire français des drogues et des toxicomanies (OFDT) et l’Observatoire des jeux (ODJ) ont mené en partenariat deux enquêtes sur ces activités.

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European Commission: Online gambling, staff working document, October 2012
European Commission: Online gambling, staff working document, October 2012

Responsible Gambling

The online gambling services sector accounts for 10.9% of the gambling market share in the EU with a growth rate for 2015 estimated to be double that of 2008, which stood at €6.6 billion. In parallel, online technology is developing at a face pace. A large number of Member States has engaged in a review of gambling legislation particularly over the last few years. Given the cross-border nature of online gambling improving and sustaining the protection of consumers and the regulatory environment is in the interest of all Member States. This is achievable by the Member States and the EU working together.

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Money-laundering risks and online gaming: time to dispel the myth?, Professor Michael Levi, University of Cardiff, 2009
Money-laundering risks and online gaming: time to dispel the myth?, Professor Michael Levi, University of Cardiff, 2009

Money Laundering

This report reviews the threat that money laundering through the e-gaming industry presents and could plausibly present to society, and the ways in which the regulated e-gaming industry discharges its duty to reduce money laundering in the EU. Industry representatives interviewed agree that there can be ‘leakage’ through which launderers may move some proceeds of some crimes, though the risks associated with the sector are comparatively modest, due to the high traceability of e-gaming transactions and the customer identification controls in the regulated sector. However this report suggests that it is not a realistic policy goal for governments in a free society to eliminate money laundering risks altogether: the aim should be to reduce to a tolerable level the risk that e-gaming may assist other crimes. This is done in two ways: controls over ownership; and controls over the operation of e-gaming itself. One reason to prefer regulation over prohibition is to ensure that operators have to undergo a ‘fit and proper person’ test before receiving a licence, preventing people with links to organised crime and terrorist groups from owning what could be vehicles for laundering if there were no controls or if controls were over-ridden by powerful managers or beneficial owners. The second reason is to encourage e-gaming companies to develop a set of procedures approved by regulators to reduce integrity risks.

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