New study: Progress made in strengthening consumer protection rules for online gambling in EU member states, but significant fragmentation and gaps remain

A new study has found that 10 EU Member States have strengthened their consumer protection rules for online gambling since 2018, including the introduction of new national self-exclusion registers in Czechia, the Netherlands, and Slovenia, but there is significant fragmentation in how Member States implement their consumer protection rules.

Brussels, 1 December 2021 – Consumer protection rules for online gambling have been strengthened in at least 10 EU Member States since 2018, but significant fragmentation and gaps remain in the consumer protection rules of Member States, according to a new study published today by the City, University of London (CUL). The study “Consumer Protection in EU Online Gambling Regulation” reviewed specific aspects of the consumer protection rules in EU Member States, including know your customer requirements, the protection of minors, safer gambling, and treatment support, and assessed whether these rules are becoming similar or not.

The CUL study concludes that while most Member States have adopted similar approaches towards consumer protection, there are significant differences in how national rules are designed or implemented and in some Member States specific consumer protection rules for online gambling are missing. For example, the study found that while 16 Member States have established a national self-exclusion register for online gambling, how gamblers are added to these registers and the duration of their self-exclusion varies significantly, and not all these Member States have rules which prohibit gambling advertising being sent to those who are self-excluded.

The study is an update to a previous study which was published by CUL in 2018. Both studies were commissioned by the European Gaming and Betting Association (EGBA) for the purpose of contributing to research knowledge about the safer gambling regulations which exist in the EU and raising awareness about the level of consumer protection offered to EU citizens in respect to online gambling.

“We welcome the progress made in strengthening the consumer protection rules in EU member states. In several areas, regulatory principles are converging, but there is increasing fragmentation in how the rules are implemented and this creates a complicated compliance and enforcement map for Europe’s gambling regulators and operators, while evidently also not benefiting the consumer. A more standardised regulatory framework would surely benefit all. While regulations and enforcement are extremely important, the study also highlights that more could be done to strengthen prevention measures and ensure that those who are affected by harm are signposted to relevant helplines and treatment centres” – Maarten Haijer, Secretary General, EGBA.

Key findings

Safer Gambling

  • 18 Member States require online gambling operators to offer their customers the possibility to set time and deposit limits.
  • Self-exclusion tools must be offered by operators to their customers in all but 2 Member States. This is in addition to any national self-exclusion schemes which may exist.
  • 16 Member States have established a national self-exclusion register, of which nearly all are accessible via a dedicated website. Since 2018, national self-exclusion registers have now been introduced in Czechia, the Netherlands, and Slovenia.
  • Requirements concerning the duration of self-exclusion varies significantly between Member States.

Protection of Minors

  • 17 Member States now have a legal requirement to display a ‘no underage gambling sign’ on gambling advertising, an increase of 5 Member States since 2018.

Treatment Support

  • 12 Member States prohibits the sending of gambling advertising to self-excluded customers.
  • 11 Member States require operators to provide customers with the contact details of problem gambling helplines and/or treatment centres upon self-exclusion.

Know Your Customer

  • All Member States require online gambling operators to collect the full name and date of birth/age of all prospective customers. All but 3 Member States also require the collection of residential address.
  • Temporary accounts are prohibited in 14 Member States, an increase from 7 Member States which prohibited temporary accounts in 2018.


  • While all Member States have government structures responsible for regulating gambling, 16 Member States have established an independent gambling authority.
  • The most common enforcement tools are fines, licence suspensions and licence revocations.

* The full study can be found here.

** Summary tables can be found here.

– ENDS –

About EGBA

The European Gaming and Betting Association (EGBA) is the Brussels-based trade association representing the leading online gaming and betting operators established, licensed and regulated within the EU, including bet365, Betsson Group, Entain, Flutter, Kindred Group, and William Hill. The Swedish Trade Association for Online Gambling (BOS) is also an affiliate member. EGBA works together with national and EU regulatory authorities and other stakeholders towards a well-regulated and well-channelled online gambling market which provides a high level of consumer protection and takes into account the realities of the internet and online consumer demand. EGBA member companies meet the highest regulatory standards and have 145 online gambling licenses to provide their services to 16 million customers in 17 different European countries. Currently EGBA members account for 25% of Europe’s online gambling gross gaming revenue (GGR).

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